Motor[ edit ] A child learning to walk Abilities for physical movement change through childhood from the largely reflexive unlearned, involuntary movement patterns of the young infant to the highly skilled voluntary movements characteristic of later childhood and adolescence. Thus prior exposure to some toxins, even preconception, can eventually affect the developing organism Hubbs-Tait et al.
Besides their health effects, water-borne diseases also have adverse developmental consequences for children. Further, children whose families are evicted from their homes in a violent manner may experience trauma.
Some factors, like the fact that boys tend to have larger and longer arms are biological constraints that we cannot control, yet have an influence for example, on when an infant will reach sufficiently. Children with disabilities[ edit ] Children with Down syndrome or Developmental coordination disorder are late to reach major Child development and the environment skills milestones.
No differences in working memory were found, however. Parental perceptions of residential crowding were inversely associated with positive social behavior amongst 3- to month-old Burundian refugee children living in the United States McAteer, In the 20th century, academic disciplines developed different lines of inquiry about the impact of the physical environment on children and how children relate to places: Speed and pattern[ edit ] The speed of motor development is rapid in early life, as many of the reflexes of the newborn alter or disappear within the first year, and slows later.
Parents in more crowded homes are also typically less responsive to their children Evans, In addition, in an instrumental variable analysis of national data in France, Goux and Maurin showed that the probability of having to repeat a grade among year-olds was strongly linked to overcrowding in the household.
Two different cross-sectional studies of European school children have uncovered relations between aircraft noise exposure and elevated symptoms of hyperactivity Haines, Stansfeld, Brentnall et al. Some of these differences are due to family genetic factors, others to environmental factors, but at some points in development they may be strongly influenced by individual differences in reproductive maturation.
Noise might alter caregiving behaviors salient to reading acquisition. None of these European studies found a link between noise levels and general, overall indices of psychological well being.
The parietal cortex is important in controlling perceptual-motor integration and the basal ganglia and supplementary motor cortex are responsible for motor sequences.
However, there is an extensive research literature documenting severe impacts of pesticide exposure on both rats and in vitro models of the mammalian brain see, e.
Day, Christopher, and Anita Midbjer. However, presumably the effects would be consistent with those reported in other contexts. Similarly, Karsdorf and Klappach found that secondary school aged children attending noisy schools proximate to road traffic in Halle, former East Germany, had more focused attention problems compared to their peers in relatively quiet secondary schools.
And Patel and colleagues found that the cord blood lead levels of neonates living in Nagpur, India, significantly predicted autonomic stability and abnormal reflexes. There are also potentially prolonged consequences of overexposure to PAHs. Outside of the global South, Hiramatsu and colleagues found deficits in long-term but not short-term memory among 8- to year-olds residing proximate to a large air force base in Okinawa, Japan compared to their peers living in quiet areas.
Finally, recent work in Belgrade, Serbia indicates that chronic residential noise exposure from road traffic can interfere with executive functioning, but only among elementary school aged boys Belojevic et al. We then provide a more extensive review of the research to date outside of Western contexts, with a specific emphasis on research in the global South.
The paucity of research on duration of exposure is unfortunate, particularly in thinking about the maturation of developing processes over time. Infants with smaller, slimmer, and more maturely proportionated infants tended to belly crawl and crawl earlier than the infants with larger builds.
Finally, Ristovska et al. Speech perception is a major building block of reading acquisition. In high-income countries both children and parents report more strained, negative familial interactions in high-density homes Evans,as well as instances of elevated punitive parenting practices.
For example, Evans, Lepore, Shejwal and Palsane found that densities people per room among primarily working class Indian families ranged from.
We know, for example, that teachers in high noise impact schools alter their teaching methods and also complain about interruption and fatigue Evans, Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.
It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child. Many factors play a role in your child's growth and development, including internal and external factors.
The condition of a child's environment is an important aspect of how he progresses. Understanding the different aspects of the environment helps you ensure that your child is getting what he needs to grow. A person's social environment, including the social relationships they make within it, can have a profound impact on their quality of parenting, which in turn affects a child's health development and future achievements.
Children and the environment cover a broad, interdisciplinary field of research and practice.
The social sciences often use the word “environment” to mean the social, political, or economic context of children’s lives, but this bibliography covers physical settings. It focuses on a place-based. As can be seen upon reviewing the current state of the evidence on the physical environment and child development, very little work has documented the impacts of environmental conditions on the development of children growing up in the global South and other low-income countries.
Environmental Influences on Child Development The prenatal environment: • The chemical balance of the mother's body and the presence of conditions or potentially toxic substances that can alter development.Download